Mobile Efficiency for Plug Load Devices

Reduce the energy consumption of residential and commercial plug load devices byt applying mobile design practices.



Irvine, CA

Recipient Location


Senate District


Assembly District



Amount Spent



Project Status

Project Result

The project is complete and the final report will be published January 2019. The project team completed the energy modeling of the power management system and its use. The team completed an application to IEEE to create standardized energy efficient specifications for plug load devices. This process may take up to two years. The standardization efforts are a key factor in enabling wider adoption of efficiency reference designs to allow a standard, comparable assessment of energy use of various plug load devices. Increased use of reference designs and programming of more efficient standby modes has the potential to reduce annual energy consumption by 20-50%.

The Issue

Typical smartphones consume 0.03 W when idle and less than 1W when in use. In comparison, typical set top devices, like satellite and cable, home and office computers and other internet protocol devices, use 100-1000 times more power when idle and 5-50 times more power when in use compared to mobile devices. From the end user's perspective all these devices are converging and increasingly offer similar information, video, audio and other services. Therefore, research is needed to improve power management on the major types of plug load devices so that they can approach the efficiency equivalent of mobile devices.

Project Innovation

This project designed a methodology guideline for plug load manufacturers to use in developing energy efficient plug load devices. In developing the guideline, the recipient will evaluate mobile design practices, hardware components, and power management software kernels to prove their effectiveness. The results were used to develop the first virtual prototypes and reference designs for energy optimized hardware and software that can guide plug load device manufacturers to reach mobile energy efficiency levels. Manufacturers will use these reference designs to develop and mass deploy energy efficient plug load devices into the marketplace. When these reference designs are used there should be a reduction of energy consumption of residential and commercial plug load devices, such as set-top boxes, TVs, computers, and game consoles.The project defined and introduce a widely accepted industry standard through the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) to support the newly developed unified design methodology and secure its long-term adoption and further evolution.

Project Benefits

This project advanced a methodology guideline to help plug load manufactures develop energy efficient plug load devices. The recipient is conducted detailed technical analysis on new software, hardware and power management design and verification methodology, conducted tests on virtual prototypes, verified energy savings, and developed reference designs, in the form of design guidelines. This information is available to the plug load device manufacturers and their suppliers to help accelerate the adoption of mobile efficiency practices across multiple product categories in the shortest time and the lowest costs. As many current plug load devices in the market lack any power management capabilities, similar to those in smart phones, this project paved the way for plug load manufacturers to advance those capabilities into other plug load devices.

Lower Costs


This project has the potential to reduce energy use and costs across a broad array of plug load devices. If deployed, the estimated potential energy savings is 20% to 50% per plug load device.

Key Project Members

Project Member

Vojin Zivojnovic

CEO/Principal Investor
Felix Villanueva

Felix Villanueva

Commission Agreement Manager/Utility Engineer
California Energy Commission



Match Partners






International Rectifier




Mentor Graphics




Contact the Team